Besides the former colonial languages of English, French, Portuguese and
Spanish, only a few indigenous African languages are official at the national
level in sub-Saharan Africa.
These are: Swahili in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda; Chichewa in Malawi; Kinyarwanda in Rwanda and the closely related Kirundi in Burundi; Sango in the Central African Republic; Swazi in Swaziland and South Africa; Tswana in Botswana and South Africa; Shona in Zimbabwe; Afrikaans, Ndebele, Xhosa,
Zulu, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Venda and Tsonga in South Africa; Somali in Somalia; Tigrinya in Eritrea; Malagasy in Madagascar; Amharic in Ethiopia.
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